Welcome to the Spectacular World of Diamond Gemstones

Diamond gemstone is the hardest Do Enjoy Life gem known to humanity and the most valued gem. Its name is derived from the Greek word adámas, meaning “unbreakable.” No stone is as intensely mined or strictly regulated as this shimmering beauty. Though it is formed of pure carbon, its hardness is due to the atoms compacted by high pressure and temperature in the earth’s upper mantle.

Diamonds are Combustible: Sir Issac Newton

In most cases, diamonds are found to have been formed between the depths of 80 and 150 km in the earth’s crust. As it is composed of carbon, the stone burns in the air, heated to very high temperatures. It will be interesting to note here that Sir Issac Newton first suggested the idea of this gemstone being combustible in 1675. The first case of incineration of diamonds was achieved 19 years later by two Italians, Averani and Targioni.

Measurement of Diamond in Carats

This gorgeous gemstone is among the most important gems measured in carats. However, it would be interesting to note that the value of the carat varied in different countries until it was standardized as 0.2 grams (200 milligrams) in 1907. It will not be out of place to mention here that the term carat was perhaps derived from the Mediterranean carob seed pods that have long been used to weigh gems/stones. The name stems from the Greek word kerátion, which means “carob seed.”

Forms and Cuts of Diamond

This vibrant gemstone possesses flawless crystal form and high symmetry. Uncut crystals might appear to be greasy and a tad rounded. However, once they undergo cutting, they emit luster and dispersion. This is what gives the stone its sparkle and radiance. The brilliant cut enjoys maximum popularity today as it best displays the fiery brilliance of this majestic stone. Other popular diamond cuts include princess, pear, baguette, and emerald. Diamond jewelry enjoys lasting popularity among the masses.

Classification of Diamond

This vibrant stone can be classified as Type I or II according to its physical properties. Type I are gems that include nitrogen. This category can further be divided into Type IA, which has nitrogen in layers, and Type IB, which is dispersed. It is worth noting that almost all diamonds are Type I diamonds. Like the natural blue variety, Type II diamonds contain no nitrogen and are laminated. Type IIA diamond does not conduct electricity, unlike Type IIB. Fine specimens are found in both types. Some diamonds are a mixture of styles.



The Largest Known Diamond

The largest gem discovered so far was found in Premier Diamond Mine near Pretoria, in Transvaal, South Africa, in 1905. The stone weighed 3,106 carats and was named after the owner of the mine, Sir Thomas Cullinan. It was cut into nine large stones and 96 smaller stones. Cullinan I, also known as the Great Star of Africa, is the largest cut stone and is perched on the Sovereign’s Sceptre with the Cross of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom.

Facts and Trivia about Diamond

There are many interesting facts and trivia attached to this magnificent gemstone. It is the hardest gem known to man. Only a diamond can cut and polish another diamond. More than three-fourths of the mined diamonds belong to industrial quality. However, this percentage might vary from mine to mine. Mostly available in colored grey to brown, these finely granular diamonds are ballas, carbonado, bort, etc.

These are sub-standard stones normally used in style for record players, drill bits, dies that draw fine wire, glass cutters, etc. Indians knew about this gorgeous stone even 2,300 years ago. However, they did not cut or break it as they believed that doing so would destroy its magical properties. Some of the places where this scintillating beauty is found today are India, Guyana, Borneo, Tanzania, Namibia, Sierra Leone, Congo, Brazil, Australia, Botswana, Venezuela, Zimbabwe, Guinea, China, Canada, Ghana, South Africa, Russia, Angola, and Russia.

Diamond Engagement Rings

It will be interesting to note that the wedding of Maximillian of Austria to Mary of Burgundy in the 15th century brought diamond jewelry to everyone’s notice and established it on the world’s map. Until then, due to the difficulty in mining, cutting, and polishing the stone, diamond jewelry wasn’t readily available. However, this momentous occasion changed everything, and jewelry made of this vivacious gem has continued its march to glory.